Through his far-reaching endeavors as composer, performer, educator, and ethnomusicolgist, Béla Bartók emerged as one of the most forceful and influential musical personalities of the 20th century. Born in Nagyszentmiklós, Hungary (now Romania), on March 25, 1881, Bartók began his musical training with piano studies at the age of five, foreshadowing his lifelong affinity for the instrument. Following his graduation from the Royal Academy of Music in 1901 and the composition of his first mature works -- most notably, the symphonic poem Kossuth (1903) -- Bartók embarked on one of the classic field studies in the history of ethnomusicology. With fellow countryman and composer Zoltán Kodály, he traveled throughout Hungary and neighboring countries, collecting thousands of authentic folk songs. Bartók's immersion in this music lasted for decades, and the intricacies he discovered therein, from plangent modality to fiercely aggressive rhythms, exerted a potent influence on his own musical language. In addition to his compositional activities and folk music research, Bartók's career unfolded amid a bustling schedule of teaching and performing. The great success he enjoyed as a concert artist in the 1920s was offset somewhat by difficulties that arose from the tenuous political atmosphere in Hungary, a situation exacerbated by the composer's frank manner. As the specter of fascism in Europe in the 1930s grew ever more sinister, he refused to play in Germany and banned radio broadcasts of his music there and in Italy. A concert in Budapest on October 8, 1940, was the composer's farewell to the country which had provided him so much inspiration and yet caused him so much grief. Days later, Bartók and his wife set sail for America. In his final years Bartók was beleaguered by poor health. Though his prospects seemed sunnier in the final year of his life, his last great hope -- to return to Hungary -- was dashed in the aftermath of World War II. He died of leukemia in New York on September 26, 1945. The composer's legacy included a number of ambitious but unrealized projects, including a Seventh String Quartet; two major works, the Viola Concerto and the Piano Concerto No. 3, were completed from Bartók's in-progress scores and sketches by his pupil, Tibor Serly. From its roots in the music he performed as a pianist -- Mozart, Beethoven, Chopin, Brahms -- Bartók's own style evolved through several stages into one of the most distinctive and influential musical idioms of the first half of the 20th century. The complete assimilation of elements from varied sources -- the Classical masters, contemporaries like Debussy, folk songs -- is one of the signal traits of Bartók's music. The polychromatic orchestral textures of Richard Strauss had an immediate and long-lasting effect upon Bartók's own instrumental sense, evidenced in masterpieces such as Music for Strings, Percussion, and Celesta (1936) and the Concerto for Orchestra (1945). Bartók demonstrated an especial concern with form in his exploitation and refinement of devices like palindromes, arches, and proportions based on the "golden section." Perhaps above all other elements, though, it is the ingenious application of rhythm that gives Bartók's music its keen edge. Inspired by the folk music he loved, Bartók infused his works with asymmetrical, sometimes driving, often savage, rhythms, which supply violent propulsion to works such as Allegro barbaro (1911) and the Sonata for Two Pianos and Percussion (1937). If a single example from Bartók's catalogue can be regarded as representative, it is certainly the piano collection Mikrokosmos (1926-1939), originally intended as a progressive keyboard primer for the composer's son, Peter. These six volumes, comprising 153 pieces, remain valuable not only as a pedagogical tool but as an exhaustive glossary of the techniques -- melodic, harmonic, rhythmic, formal -- that provided a vessel for Bartók's extraordinary musical personality.
© Michael Rodman /TiVo
© Michael Rodman /TiVo
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Classical - Released September 28, 2010 | Chandos
Hi-Res Booklet Distinctions 5 de Diapason - 4 étoiles Classica - Exceptional Sound Recording - Hi-Res Audio
Written over a span of nearly 20 years, Bartók's three piano concertos were composed not at the behest of other performers as the violin and viola concertos were, but for the composer himself. Much like the virtuoso composer/performers of earlier generations, Bartók composed his three monumental concertos to take on concert tours and, of course, to generate income. Each of the concertos closely adheres to the Classical three-movement structure exemplified by Beethoven, even concluding each work with a rondo movement. The motivic development, use of modes, and incorporation of other musical forms is all Bartók's own. This Chandos album of the three Bartók concertos features pianist Jean-Efflam Bavouzet who completed an immensely successful complete survey of the Debussy complete solo piano works. Though Debussy and Bartók are stylistically quite different, the attributes that so distinguished his Debussy performances -- broad range of colors, meticulously controlled touch, transparent articulation, effortless control of tempo -- make for brilliant Bartók as well. Accompanied by the BBC Philharmonic under Gianandrea Noseda, Bartók's muscular orchestral writing and continuous dialogue (or arguments, as the case may be) between soloist and orchestra are seamless and cohesive. Even during the most brash, forceful brass fanfares, Noseda maintains a keen sense of balance that always allows Bavouzet's powerful sound to ring through. Conversely, the intimate, hushed sound quality achieved in the Second Concerto's Adagio is enough to make listeners want to hold their breath. After listening to such satisfying performances, listeners will be left hoping that Chandos has more plans for Bavouzet and Bartók. © TiVo