Hungarian composer Zoltán Kodály is today remembered as much for his contributions to the fields of ethnomusicology and music education as he is for his own musical creations. Born in 1881, Kodály was the son of a local railway station master and amateur violinist who provided a rich musical environment for his child. Young Zoltán's early exposure to the German classics was tempered by an interest in the folk heritage of his native land; in 1900, after graduating from the Archiepiscopal Grammar School in Nagyszombat, he enrolled simultaneously at Budapest University (where he studied Germanic and Hungarian literature) and at the Budapest Academy of Music. Composition studies at the Academy were fruitful for Kodály, and he took a diploma in the subject in 1904. In 1905 he received a second diploma in music education, and in 1906 Kodály crowned his academic career with a Ph.D. earned for his thorough structural analysis of Hungarian folksong. During the preparation of this dissertation Kodály went on the first of many excursions into rural Hungary to record and transcribe authentic folk music, and in doing so built a strong and lasting friendship with Béla Bartók (who was engaged in the same practice at the time, and with whom Kodály would go on to publish several collections of Hungarian folk music). Kodály's debut as a composer came in October 1906 with a successful performance of his orchestral poem Summer Evening (Nyári este) at the Academy of Music. Two months later Kodály left Hungary for the first time, having received funding from the Academy for a period of study in Berlin and Paris. Upon his return in 1907 he was appointed to the faculty of the Academy, eventually succeeding his teacher Koessler as professor of composition (and becoming Dohnányi's assistant when the latter was appointed director of the Academy in 1919). With the creation of the New Hungarian Music Society in 1911, Kodály firmly established himself alongside Bartók and Dohnányi as a powerful force in Hungary's developing musical culture. Kodály produced a steady stream of music (his most famous works being the opera Háry János from 1927 and the orchestral suite from that opera) and important educational works (which have collectively become known to music educators as the Kodály method, and rank in significance alongside similar contributions by Orff and Dalcroze) until his death in 1967. In later years he made frequent concert tours during which he appeared as a conductor of his own music, though he never abandoned what he himself considered to be his primary work: the collection and systematization of Hungarian folk music and culture, and a corresponding assimilation of that body of work into a new Hungarian artistic aesthetic (a goal also shared by his friend Bartók). In the years after the Second World War he was honored by countless academic, musical, and political organizations around the globe; in 1961 he served as president of the International Folk Music Council, and, in 1964, as honorary president of the International Society of Music Educators.
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Symphonies - Released May 30, 2007 | Berlin Classics
As part of Berlin Classics' multivolume Moods series, Sensual Tunes presents short classical pieces and movements from larger works that will suit most relaxation purposes and provides over an hour of melodic favorites in solid performances with pleasant reproduction. The music has been taken from albums first released by Edel Classics, and some of the recordings predate digital technology, so there is a mix of ADD and DDD tracks. All the same, the sound has been carefully mastered to even out sound levels and make volume adjustments unnecessary. The mellow selections by Giuseppe Verdi, Pyotr Il'yich Tchaikovsky, Ludwig van Beethoven, Johannes Brahms, and Georges Bizet amply represent the Romantic era, and many will be familiar to even the most casual classical listener, while the later works by Zoltán Kodály, Max Reger, and Maurice Ravel give an agreeable sampling of the early modern period. With such world-class orchestras as the Dresden Staatskapelle and the Gewandhausorchester Leipzig, and with lesser ranked ensembles such as the Rundfunk-Sinfonieorchester Berlin, the Dresdner Philharmonic, and the Berliner Sinfonie-Orchester, the performances run from fine to excellent, though none of them are sub-par; under the direction of eight conductors, the interpretations are somewhat variable in style but never less than acceptable. This budget compilation is great for beginners, though most experienced listeners will find it dispensable.
Symphonies - Released May 30, 2007 | Berlin Classics
As part of Berlin Classics' Moods series, Peaceful Inspirations offers rather interesting excerpts and short pieces, though most of these set moods quite at odds with the album's title. The selections by such modern masters as Ravel, Stravinsky, Prokofiev, Kodály, and Hindemith, among others, are a refreshing change of fare from the expected Pachelbel Canon or Albinoni Adagio, and it's gratifying to see that the roster of performers includes several fine orchestras and conductors, including the famous Gewandhausorchester Leipzig and the Dresden Staatskapelle. But listeners will find that the music is often far from peaceful, even though it is all inspired. Ravel's Le jardin féerique and Pavane pour une infante défunte, Tchaikovsky's "Arabian Dance" from the Nutcracker, and Respighi's "Italiana" from Ancient Airs and Dances are consistently restrained in mood, but the rest of the selections have loud and fast sections that tend to be too exciting for this collection's stated aim and are often fairly tense in feeling and flamboyant in style. (Note in particular the Scherzo moderato from Hindemith's Symphonic Metamorphosis on Themes by Carl Maria von Weber, which is nothing short of rousing). Had this CD been titled "Exotic Inspirations," then the program would be a perfect match since the pieces touch on fairy tales and distant locales and the music shimmers throughout with fantastic instrumental colors. For a mellower sampler by the same label, try Sensual Tunes, which is far more subdued and relaxing than this disc.